During the 2013 offseason, the then World Champion Baltimore Ravens lost nine significant contributors from the team that defeated the San Francisco 49ers in Super Bowl XLVII. Aside from Ray Lewis and Matt Birk retiring, other key losses happened in free agency, the cutting process or via trade. The Ravens lost outside linebacker Paul Kruger (Cleveland Browns), inside linebacker Dannell Ellerbe (Miami Dolphins), safety Ed Reed (Houston Texans) and cornerback Cary Williams (Philadelphia Eagles) in free agency, amongst others.
Without these players and for other reasons, the Ravens were unable to return to the playoffs in 2013, becoming the second straight SB Champion not to return to defend their crown. Unable to find a leader to replace Ray Lewis and forced to try to replace the missing pieces, the chemistry never seemed to gel and Baltimore finished 8-8.
The reward for losing talented players, if there such a thing, comes in the form of compensatory picks in the NFL Draft the following season. The most NFL teams can receive in any one year for the upcoming draft is four and this year, the Ravens received the maximum allotted picks for the losses sustained in free agency last year.
With only four picks of their own heading to Radio City Music Hall in May, the four picks could not have come at a better time for GM Ozzie Newsome and the Ravens. Baltimore was scheduled to select in the first (17), second (48) and third round (79), as well a pick in the sixth round (184). The four compensatory picks now give the Ravens additional picks in the third (99), fourth (134 and 138) and fifth round (175). The compensatory picks cannot be traded and now give Newsome, Erik DeCosta and the rest of the Draft gurus eight selections total in this year’s draft.
Ozzie Newsome, whom many refer to as the Wizard, when it comes to personnel moves and the draft, will make the most of these picks. In fact, the “Wizardry” in how Newsome works the system can be seen in the compensatory picks alone. Ever since the NFL has implemented the compensatory pick system in 1994, the Ravens have led the league in total compensatory picks awarded with 41. The next closest are the Green Bay Packers and Dallas Cowboys who each have received 33. It is also important to remember the Packers & Cowboys had a two-year head start, as the Ravens were the Browns in 1994 & 95.
According to Wikipedia, the compensatory process work this way. In addition to the 32 selections in each of the seven rounds, 32 compensatory picks are awarded to teams that have lost more or better compensatory free agents than they signed in the previous year. Teams that gain and lose the same number of players but lose higher-valued players than they gain also can be awarded a pick, but only in the seventh round, after the other compensatory picks. Compensatory picks cannot be traded, and the placement of the picks is determined by a proprietary formula based on the player's salary, playing time, and postseason honors with his new team, with salary being the primary factor.
Newsome is able to gain these picks without losing picks because players cut by teams do not count in this equation and there is a cut-off date for signings to have an impact on the compensatory draft pick formula. According to the formula, the Ravens signed zero free agents that effected compensatory picks. Cut by their prior teams after the deadline, Elvis Dumervil, safety Michael Huff and defensive end Marcus Spears were all had without losing draft picks. Inside linebacker, Daryl Smith was signed after the deadline for signings to affect compensatory picks.
Climbing into the head of any General Manager to try to predict what they will do during the NFL Draft is difficult but trying to get inside the mind of a Wizard is a completely different set of circumstances. The thought process can be damn near impossible to predict. Will it be “Best player available” or filling a need—or will Newsome and the Ravens trade back—or even up to get their man?
Newsome, who is listed as the Ravens’ general manager and executive vice president, is directing his 19th draft and if history repeats itself, Ozzie and his staff will select players that will have immediate and long-lasting impact on the Ravens’ continued success as a playoff contender. Who those players will be and even at what positions is what makes mock drafts so much, but mocking the Ravens is work—-
The Ravens and a few of their players are not making it easy to predict how they will draft in six weeks. Undisciplined off the field behavior, as well as the moves the team has made in free agency to this point all factor in the process this offseason. They have re-signed several of their own players, which is an entirely different approach than they executed last season and have added just three players from other teams.
The returning Ravens include OT Eugene Monroe, Jacoby Jones, Dennis Pitta & Darryl Smith. Speaking of Smith, the Ravens signed former Carolina Panthers WR Steve Smith, just days after his release in Charlotte. They also signed former Rams safety Darian Stewart and via trade acquired center Jeffery Zuttah from the Tampa Bay Buccaneers for a fifth round pick in next year’s NFL Draft.
With an 8-8 record, one of the worst offensive lines in the NFL and a lack of any tangible leadership, the re-signings and outside additions will fix some of these issues but they are not going to fix everything that ailed the Ravens in 2013.
There is still the matter of how the Ravens are going to deal with RB Ray Rice. Heading into his seventh season in 2014, Rice was arrested and charged with simple assault-domestic violence on Feb. 15 following a physical altercation with his then-fiancée at the Revel Casino and Hotel in Atlantic City, N.J. After taking a month to review the evidence, possibly including a video tape, which allegedly shows Rice getting physical with his fiancé, Atlantic County Prosecutor’s Office announced last Thursday that the charge has been changed to third degree aggravated assault, which is a far more serious charge. If convicted, Rice could get a prison sentence of three to five years, according to the Baltimore Sun.
Ravens owner Steve Bisciotti has said Rice has a future with the team despite his arrest. Rice, 27, signed a five-year, $35 million contract with the Ravens before the 2012 season but is coming off his worst season, rushing for only 660 yards and averaging a career-low 3.1 yards per carry.
Regardless of what the happens in a court of law, the Ravens still very much face the prospect of life without No.27 for possibly a quarter of the 2014 NFL season. Rice will likely face a suspension in the court of Goodell—and if history is indeed a good teacher, that suspension could be a minimum of four games. NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell will allow the law to run its due course but even if Rice somehow gets off in NJ, Goodell has shown in the past his justice under the leagues conduct policy is swift and his decisions are made regardless of verdicts and in the best interest of the league. Battering women does not sit well at any level of any profession or in any part of our society. Just ask Steelers QB Ben Roethlisberger about how much the NFL cares about what happens in court when it involves women and abuse—or in Big Ben’s situation—a case that never even made it into court. In 2010, Goodell cracked down on one of the league's stars, suspending Roethlisberger without pay for the first six games of the 2010 season, even though sexual assault allegations against him in Georgia did not lead to criminal charges. Goodell determined that Roethlisberger had violated the NFL's personal-conduct policy and ordered the two-time Super Bowl-winning quarterback to undergo a "comprehensive behavioral evaluation by professionals."
So, as you see, it’s not just signing free agents and making trades that makes a GM’s life so difficult when the players are off on their own time. Rice is not the only Ravens player to have a run in with the law this offseason. Backup Offensive lineman Jah Reid (Assault) and WR Deonte Thompson’s (Marijuana Possession) actions must also be considered when the Ravens head into next month’s draft. Adding depth or even a potential starter at all three positions (RB, OL, and WR) is a priority for the Ravens.
Without over complicating the process, here is my attempt to get into the mind of the Ravens front office, as I try to predict the Ravens entire 2014 NFL Draft:
1 (17), 2 (48), 3 (79), 3 (99 Compensatory), 4 (134 Compensatory), 4 (138 Compensatory), 5 (175 Compensatory) & 6 (194)
BALTIMORE RAVENS MOCK DRAFT 2.0
Round 1 (Pick 17)
Zach Martin, T / G Notre Dame: 6’4” 308 lbs. / 32 7/8 arm length / 9.5” hands
Combine: 40-yard 5.20 / Bench Press 23 (250 lbs.) /
Many mock drafts have the Ravens now looking to draft one of the two top safeties in the draft. Rob Rang and Dane Brugler of CBS Sports NFL Draft Scout have the Ravens taking Ha-Sean Clinton Dix & Calvin Pryor respectively. If the Ravens select a safety, it would be the third time in franchise history that the team has elected to draft a player from the same position in the first round of back-to-back drafts. They drafted Ray Lewis with their second pick of the first round (26) 1996 and then took Peter Boulware with the fourth overall pick the following season. In 1998 and 99, the Ravens used the 10th overall pick in both drafts to sure up the cornerback position when they drafted Duane Starks & then Chris McAllister. Last year, the Ravens selected Matt Elam and it would not shock me if indeed the Ravens took one of the two safeties, especially with James Ihedigbo signing with the Detroit Lions—but the biggest offseason acquisition not mentioned above may be the one that necessitates selecting Zack Martin.
It is no secret former Houston Texans HC, new Ravens offensive coordinator, Gary Kubiak, loves the zone-blocking scheme, and it’s no secret that the Ravens tried and failed last season to execute a version of their own. The hiring of Kubiak certainly does not suggest the Ravens will return to the man-on-man blocking schemes of yesterday but instead will stick with the scheme that gave them fits. Free agency tells us that the Ravens want versatility, as Michael Oher is in Tennessee and former TB Buc center / guard, Jeremey Zuttah is now a Raven. Zuttah is not an All-Pro but he is an upgrade over center Geno Gradkowski and he can also play guard. Zuttah was Pro Football Focus' 22nd ranked center last season out of 35 qualifiers. The Ravens' incumbent center, Gino Gradkowski, ranked 35th, according to PFF's grading.
Zach Martin, unrelated to Jonathan Martin by genetics or style of play, is a coach's dream. While perhaps lacking the body type scouts prefer at tackle (where he started 50 of his 52 career games for the Irish), Martin slides well laterally and controls opponents. He is smart, fierce and versatile with excellent hand usage. Martin may not have the ideal size to play tackle but he will work out just fine at right tackle for the Ravens and would be an upgrade over Michael Oher. The Ravens need Martin more than any other player, as his versatility would allow them to make adjustments if they decided that Kelechi Osemele should move to RT. Ozzie Newsome does not have the luxury of trading back to get Martin; the Dolphins will not let him past No.19. That would leave a player like Cyrus Kouandjio as the likely next best option and in my opinion—they would simply be redrafting Michael Oher if Kouandjio were the selection.
If the Ravens are serious about making the zone blocking work and they have to be with Kubiak in charge of the offense, then drafting a safety or WR would be the wrong decision here, especially when you consider the important hole on the right side of the fourth worst offensive line in the NFL last season. Besides, is it more important to protect your $120.6 million investment or find a ball hawking safety–while Clinton Dix and Pryor are solid prospects, they aren't Ed Reed or Sean Taylor and that's the only type of safety that should have the Ravens thinking any other way than right tackle in this draft with this pick. It is possible given his recent legal troubles that Michigan's Taylor Lewan could fall to the Ravens—–either way, Martin or Lewan need to be wearing purple next season and I'm not talking about Minnesota purple.
Second Round (pick 48)
Carlos Hyde, RB Ohio State 5’11” 230 Lbs. / 32” Arm Length / 9 5/8” Hands
Combine 40 yds. 4.66 / Bench Press 19 / Broad Jump 114” /
Dare to be BOLD—–For whatever reason, the Ravens rushing attack in 2013 has to be considered the root of the offensive evils of last season. Yes, the offensive line was equally inept and the two run hand-in-hand but Ray Rice and Bernard Pierce aren’t the long term answers in Baltimore. Both were affected by injuries and a lack of consistent blocking all season but Rice is entering his seventh season and Pierce is showing a knack for injury and an inability to make the necessary big plays. In addition, Rice's offseason has been marred after being charged with aggravated assault by an Atlantic County Grand Jury on Thursday, following an incident at an Atlantic City casino in February. The Ravens gained a franchise-record low 1,328 rushing yards last season, averaging 3.1 yards per carry with just seven touchdown runs. Rice rushed for just 660 yards for the season, a career low as a starter.
Head Coach John Harbaugh was not bashful about his disappointment in the Ravens running game last season when asked about it at the NFL Combine. "I think the whole thing just needs an overhaul," Harbaugh said at the NFL scouting combine. "It was a myriad of things. We didn't block people well. We didn't move people. We didn't get on people. … Our backs both weren't 100 percent and they didn't make enough guys miss, didn't break enough tackles. So the yards weren't there. We also didn't throw well enough to get people out of single-high, press man [coverage]. We were always pretty much regularly going up against a heavy box, so that compounded a problem. We were probably a throw to set up the run offense the last 11, 12 games and we didn't throw the ball well enough to set up the run. We just didn't get the job done."
The Ravens are going to use either this pick or their third round selection on a RB. Including Carlos Hyde, they met with five of them at the NFL Combine. Hyde, if he is even on the board at this point, would be a great fit in the Ravens offense. Hyde reminds me a lot of a RB that called Baltimore home for six seasons. Jamal Lewis gained nearly 8,000 yards, including a season in which he rushed for 2,066 yards. At 5’11” and 240 pounds, Lewis was a powerful runner could flash the speed when he needed it. Hyde, the Big Ten Running Back of the Year and first-team All-Big 10 pick finished the season with 100-plus rushing yards in nine consecutive games. He finished with 1,508 rushing yards and 15 TD’s—this, after being suspended for the first three games for being a "person of interest" in an assault investigation. NFL.com says, Hyde has outstanding size, explosive power and run strength — can be his own blocker and create his own holes. Punishes linebackers running downhill and usually falls forward. Superb contact balance and finishing strength — does not go down easily and can barrel through arm tackles. Extremely powerful short-yardage/goal-line runner, which the Ravens could use. Remember the Green Bay game? He gets better as the game progresses, wearing down defensive fronts. Took over the game in the fourth quarter vs. Northwestern (2013) and willed team to victory. He is surprisingly quick in short spaces and can plant hard and go. Is solid in pass protection and can stonewall blitzers in their tracks. Good awareness and anticipation to react to stunts and adjust to movement. Soft hands-catcher.
Third Round (Pick 79)
Terrance Brooks, Safety Florida State
Vitals: 5’-11” & 198 Lbs. / 31” Arm Length / 9 Hands
Combine: 4.42 40-yard / 38” Vertical / 119” Broad Jump / 10 Reps Weight Bench
The Ravens are expected to shift Matt Elam from free safety to his natural strong safety position and would like to acquire a play-making centerfielder to work in tandem with Elam, whose strong suits are his tackling and blitzing capabilities. Brooks is a 2013 Second-team All-ACC selection. In addition, he played and started in 13 games, missing one game due to concussion. Brooks' lack of dominating statistics led to his being overshadowed at times but NFL scouts are intrigued with the former cornerback's agility, range and willingness to be physical in run support. Voted to the First Team All-ACC unit by coaches (but only second-team by the media), Brooks' toughness and versatility could lead to a second-day selection in the draft despite few outside of Tallahassee realizing his importance to the Seminoles' undefeated season.
From CBS Sports Rob Rang: While a touch shorter than scouts would prefer, Brooks looks the part of an NFL free safety, boasting broad shoulders, a well-built frame and trim waist. He possesses good balance, agility and straight-line speed, including an impressive burst to close. A former cornerback who is asked to drop down and cover slot receivers, on occasion, demonstrating good balance, fluidity and change of direction for coverage. Brooks is more physical than you might expect given his cornerback background, often dropping down into a linebacker-like role for the Seminoles, which the Ravens will love in a defense that requires versatility and physicality. Long arms and good balance to play off blocks and make plays near the line of scrimmage amid traffic. A big-hitter who seems to enjoy the physicality of the game. Flashes strong hands for the interception, as well as the ability to track over his shoulder (North Carolina State). Good special teams’ player.
Round Three (Pick 99 Compensatory)
CJ Fiedorowicz, TE, Iowa
Vitals: 6’6” & 265 Lbs. / 33” Arm Length / 10 ¼ Hands /
Combine: 4.76-40 yard / 31 ½” Vertical / 25 Reps on Weight Bench
Fiedorowicz showed off his athletic ability at the NFL Combine when he was first among TE’s in the 3-Cone (7.10) & 20 Yard Shuttle (4.26) Drills. Underutilized in the Hawkeyes offense, Fiedorowicz finished the 2013 season with a career-high six touchdowns and was voted First Team All-Big Ten. In need of a TE, the Ravens met with Fiedorowicz in Indy and came away impressed. C.J. won the Alabama Power Most Outstanding Receiver for the Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday practices at the Senior Bowl. He has excellent size with a proportioned body and is physical enough to continue developing as a blocker. He demonstrated more suddenness in and out of his cuts that will allow him to get separation when facing man coverage. He is a throwback tight end who blocks and has excellent size at 6-foot-5, 265 pounds and is a sure-handed receiver. Fiedorowicz finished with 91 career catches for 899 yards and 10 touchdowns over his final 30 games of his career, catching at least one pass per game during that span. Dane Bugler of NFL Draft Scout says he shows good versatility, showing the ability to come off a down block to get past defenders as a receiver. Good body control and soft hands for such a large man, traits that have led Washington junior Austin Seferian-Jenkins to earn a lot of attention as a possible first-round pick. Fiedorowicz is not as flashy as ASJ, but he is just as big and fast in a straight-line and is a much more physical and attentive blocker. If Fiedorowicz is as advertised and even the rigid Nolan Nowrocki thinks so (see below), he could be just what ails the Ravens opposite Dennis Pitta. Fiedorowicz tries to pattern his game after New England Patriots tight end Rob Gronkowski and if he could provide a third of what Gronk gives to the Pats when healthy, this is a bonafide home run with the 99th pick.
Nolan Nowrocki summary on Fiedorowicz: Big-framed, linear and dependable, Fiedorowicz looks the part and has balanced skills to be a legitimate “Y” tight end in the pros. Is an asset as a competitive blocker and as a sure-handed receiver. Will be in demand in a relatively thin tight ends class.
Round Four (Pick 134)
Chris Davis, CB Auburn
Vitals: 5’-10” & 202 Lbs. / 31” Arm Length / 9 ¼ Hands:
Combine/ PD: 4.55-40 yard / 124” Broad Jump / 15 Bench Reps
The Ravens are dangerously thin at the CB position. Jimmy Smith and Lardarius Webb are both solid starters but both have been injury prone and been inconsistent with a lack of focus at critical times. You may remember Davis as the guy that cemented his name in Auburn lore with his 108-yard touchdown return off a missed field goal to upset Alabama in 2013. However, he is also a very accomplished cover corner. According to NFL Draft Scout, Davis possesses a compact, well-developed build with light feet, fluid change of direction and smooth acceleration. Alert zone defender with quick-twitch athleticism to break downhill on the ball. Good athleticism for coverage responsibilities, demonstrating the agility and balance to mirror receivers, as well as the straight-line speed to keep up on vertical routes. However, they also point out that he lacks the height preferred in a man-heavy scheme and that he is inconsistent with his physicality as an open-field tackler. He does his share of standing around the pile and will occasionally lunge toward the legs of ball carriers with his shoulder, rather than forcefully wrapping, leading to some missed tackles. He’s versatile—-a compact, physical zone corner with intriguing return skill, Davis will be more challenged by his lack of height and tight hips in the pros. His intangibles, toughness against the run and ability to factor as a punt returner will allow him to carve out a role on a team like the Ravens. I’ve seen Davis as low as a fifth rounder and as high as an early third rounder. This seems to be the more likely landing spot and if he’s there, he’s not a bad catch for the Ravens.
Round Four (Pick 138 Compensatory)
Cody Latimer, WR Indiana
Vitals: 6’-3” & 215 Lbs. / 32 5/8 Arm Length / 9 5/8” Hands
Pro Day: 4.39 40-yard (4.43 second try) / 39” Vertical / 126” Broad / 24 Bench Reps
According to the Baltimore Sun, the Ravens sent a scout to evaluate the former Hoosiers standout WR back on March 25. In fact, the Ravens are one of six teams that scheduled him for private workouts. Ravens WR coach Bobby Engram flew to or will be flying to Bloomington to conduct the Ravens private session. Laitmer finished his career with 135 receptions for 2,042 yards and was named second-team All-Big Ten Conference. As a junior last season, he caught 72 passes for 1,096 yards and nine touchdowns. The Ravens love is size and speed. He was a prep basketball standout; Latimer is a well built, sure-handed and if he develops, could nicely fill the big-bodied possession receiver role the Ravens have relished since the departure of Anquan Boldin. Latimer’s hardwood background is evident in his leaping ability, body control and hand-eye coordination. Although he lacks ideal explosiveness and isn’t smooth is “gear change and flexibility” he will be an effective slant runner and making contested catches to beat zone coverage and could also have a lot of success in the red zone where Joe Flacco likes to loft the ball to his bigger receivers.
Round 5 (Pick 175 Compensatory).
Ryan Carrethers, DT Arkansas State 6’-1” 337 Lbs. / 31 ¾ Arm Length / 9 3/8” Hands
Combine: 40 yds. 5.47 / Bench Press 32 Reps /
Carrethers is a two-time first-team All-Sun Belt selection (2012-13). In 2013, he blocked two kicks and led Red Wolves with four sacks. In 2012, he started all 13 games. He is big and thick with outstanding weight-room strength. He squats a small house and maintains low body fat. Has sheer mass and natural girth to dig in and hold his ground vs. double teams. Has a wrestling background and understands leverage. Has two-gap ability and is a heavy tackler. He has a great work ethic, which is part of the “Raven Way”. He is tough and durable and possesses a solid personal and football character. While I just made him sound like the second coming of a top pick, there is a reason he is a projected as a fifth or sixth round selection. He lacks ideal height and has short arms and small hands. He is not very quick at the point of the attack and is considered heavy-legged with limited range. Carrethers needs to improve hand use, quickness, placement and shed timing. He has marginal pass-rush value but the Ravens have found and developed guys with his work ethic. If he is committed, he could have a future in a rotational role.
Round Six (Pick 194)
Matt Patchan, OT Boston College
Vitals: 6’-6” 302 Lbs. / 33” Arm Length / 9 3/8” Hands
Combine: 4.97 40-yard / 33 ½” Vertical / 22 Bench Reps
With Jah Reid likely on his way out the door and Ricky Wagner & David Mims not quite the answer, the Ravens may take a chance on a quick athletic tackle like Patchan. He would give them depth at the tackle position and if he can stay away from his “X” Games lifestyle and remain healthy, he could prove to be quite a steal in the sixth round. Patchan has been unable to remain on the field, mostly due to a maddening array of injuries. In May 2008, he was shot in the left shoulder, as a bystander at a park in Brandon, Fla. He later injured his left knee in the first of two scooter accidents while at Florida, one of which also led to his being hit by a car. He missed all but the first four games of the 2009 season with a torn ACL (right knee), all of 2010 with a fractured right wrist and all of 2012 with a torn pectoral. However, he looks the part of an NFL offensive tackle. He has broad shoulders, long arms and a trim middle. He has very good initial quickness off the snap, firing off the ball when run-blocking to turn and seal his opponent from the action. Surprising straight-line speed to get to the second level and shows good lateral agility and body control to adjust to moving targets. Originally recruited by the Florida Gators, he transferred to Boston College in 2013 and managed to start all 13 games being voted Second-team All-ACC at left tackle. He blocked for Heisman Trophy candidate Andre Williams, who ran for 2,177 yards. Patchan has been listed as low as priority free agent to an early sixth round selection. If the Ravens or any of the scouts are satisfied with his medicals from the combine, his size, speed and production in 2013 will not see him make it to undrafted free agent status. Do not forget, Ozzie Newsome is not afraid to spend a late round pick on a college player with an injury history or currently coming off an injury. Last year, the Ravens selected DE Kapron Lewis Moore from Notre Dame, who tore his ACL in the BCS Championship game vs. Alabama. Ironically, the Ravens selected Moore with their sixth round pick, the 200th overall pick of the 2013 NFL Draft.
Offense: 5 Selections
I have the Ravens filling their need at Left Tackle with Zack Martin in the first round (17) and picking up some depth with Matt Patchan in the sixth round (194). I also have them addressing needs at RB, TE and WR with Carlos Hyde in the second (48), CJ Fiedorowicz in third (99) & Cody Latimer in the fourth round with the 138th overall pick. Hyde would be the big prize for the Ravens in this scenario, as the rushing attack was one of the worst in the league last season. I also believe the Ravens are far more disturbed about what happened in their backfield last season and during the offseason than they are letting on.
Defense: 3 Selections
I have the Ravens addressing their need at safety position with FSU’s Terrance Brooks in the third round (79). The drafting of Brooks would allow the Ravens to move Matt Elam back to his more natural position of strong safety. I also have the purple and black selecting their obligatory defensive lineman in the fifth round with Ryan Carrethers from Arkansas State and with only Jimmy Smith, Lardarius Webb, Chykie Brown and Asa Jackson at corner back; I have the Ravens selecting CB Chris Davis from Auburn. Davis, who is mostly known for his 108-yard return of a missed field with no time left to beat Alabama last season, may not be the CB the Ravens select but they will select a corner and in what could be the surprising pick of the draft for the Ravens, I would not at all be surprised to see Ozzie Newsome take a corner, as high as the second round.
I will update the Ravens Draft Board each week here on Fanspeak until the NFL Draft in May
Along with my own scouting reports of the players, I also used the scouting reports of CBS Sports NFL Draft Scout, ESPN Scouting service and of course, Fanspeaks very own, Stephen Shoup.